Spain's profile

Spain’s profile

Basic data

  • Capital: Madrid
  • Population: 48.4 million inhabitants (in 2023).
  • Official and co-official languages: Spanish (96%), Catalan (14.2%), Valencian (5.6%), Galician (5.2%), Basque (2.3%).
  • National holiday: October 12


Spain is a Parliamentary Monarchy, made up of 17 Autonomous Communities and 2 autonomous cities.


  • Area : 506.030 km2.
  • Highest peaks: Pico del Teide (3718 m) and Mulhacén (3479 m).
  • Largest national park: Sierra Nevada National Park (85,883 hectares).

Most populated cities and their metropolitan areas

Population in 2022

City Population in metropolitan area (municipality)
Madrid 5.584.446 (3.280.782)
Barcelona 3.304.275 (1.636.193)
Valencia 1.933.709 (792.492)
Seville 1.547.640 (681.998)
Zaragoza 757.389 (673.010)
Source: INE


In recent years, Spain is experiencing a great growth in terms of Research, becoming in 2019 the country that grew the most in the world scientific production of excellence in terms of number of scientific papers published.

There is also a State Plan for Scientific and Technical Research and Innovation as well as a wide network of Public Research Organizations, headed by the CSIC, Large and Medium Scientific Facilities and an Association of Science and Technology Parks of Spain.

In addition, the government’s investment in R&D is increasing year after year, reaching a 98% increase in just three years in 2023, a clear indicator that the country is betting on this field.


In 10 years Spain has grown and has managed to position itself as the fifth largest economy in the European Union (source Eurostat) and in which every year growth has been above 3%.

The base of the economy is the service sector, which accounts for 67% of GDP, followed by the industrial sector, which accounts for 20%, and finally agriculture with 2.6%.

Small and medium-sized companies generate 70% of employment in Spain and represent 99% of the business fabric.